Kowalska grew up in a religious family headed by her rabbi father. When she was sixteen, she started to draw.
In 1922 she moved to Berlin where she met her husband-to-be, the writer and essayist Boruch Winogoura. Once in Paris, Kowalska moved to 17 rue Pierre Leroux in Montparnasse but she did not have her own atelier and was obliged to use those of her friend's.
She was active in the Kultur-Liga group and in the Jewish communist circles. She worked as a journalist and wrote articles on painting for the Yiddish newspapers Presse Nouvelle and the Journal de Paris. Secretary of the Jewish Painters and Sculptors Association, she participated in the Jewish Cultural Congress of 1937.
During the Occupation, Kowalska worked for the Resistance before being arrested by the Gestapo.
She was imprisoned in La Santé and Tourelles before being deported in 1941 with her husband on convoy n°34.
She was assassinated by the Nazis.
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